is a pleasure to have the opportunity
to speak to members of the Woodrow Wilson
International Center. In the tradition
of Woodrow Wilson, I will not to speak
for long. Apparently, while he was President,
one of his Cabinet members praised his
short speeches and asked how long it took
to prepare them. "It depends,"
Wilson told him. "If I am to speak
10 minutes, I need a week for preparation;
if 15 minutes, three days; if half an
hour, two days, if an hour, I am ready
now." Well, I prepared for about
two and-a-half days, just to give you
an indication of what you are in for.
is another story about one of Wilson's
predecessors. When he was still vice president,
Teddy Roosevelt went hiking in the mountains
of New York. After stopping for lunch,
he saw a messenger headed his way. The
man brought Roosevelt a telegram that
said President McKinley was gravely ill
and that he should depart for Buffalo
immediately. The vice president was 50
miles from the nearest railroad station
and 10 miles from the nearest telephone.
Walking and riding through the night,
he finally made it to the train station,
where he learned that McKinley had died
and he was now president of the United
information was not easily or rapidly
shared in those days. Contrast that with
news of the recent death of Pope John
Paul II in Rome, spread throughout the
world by text messaging and television
satellite in a matter of seconds.
the last hundred years, sweeping social,
political, and economic changes have taken
place across the globe. Many of you may
be familiar with Tom Friedman's book,
The Lexus and the Olive Tree and may be
reading his latest bestseller, The World
is Flat. In them, he describes the impact
of globalization on the world economy.
That same globalization has also impacted
of these global changes identified by
Friedman and others, it was clear even
before 9/11 that the FBI needed to change.
Once America was attacked, we needed to
change overnight. Immediately, our number
one priority became preventing another
at no time in history has the FBI changed
on such a large scale as in the past three-and-a-half
years. Today, I want to discuss these
changes in light of evolving threats and
improvements in our ability to respond
to those threats, both old and new.
FBI has always changed to meet evolving
threats--from the "gangster era"
through the Cold War. It was because crime
had begun to cross state lines that the
Bureau of Investigation was first established
in 1908, under then President Theodore
100 years later, criminal activity not
only crosses state lines, it traverses
international boundaries with the stroke
of a computer key. Crime is more diverse
than ever before. It includes terrorism,
violent gangs, illegal weapons trade,
and the trafficking of human beings.
the threat is increasingly asymmetrical
and complex. Our adversaries may be nation
states, militaries, or international terrorist
or criminal organizations. They are dedicated
to stealing our secrets, and some are
dedicated to destroying our way of life.
continue preventing attacks in the future,
we must anticipate the challenges we will
face down the road.
these challenges are advances such as
high speed technology, miniaturization,
and unlimited bandwidth that will allow
information to be transferred much more
easily. As Friedman would point out, that
will be good for the world economy--but
it will also provide opportunity for criminals.
is likely that the role of nation-states
will continue to diminish. The implication
is that criminals will seek operational
advantages and sanctuary through hidden
networks that are difficult to identify
and penetrate, and that easily cross jurisdictional
and demographic changes may lead to large
numbers of unemployed, dissatisfied young
people and create breeding grounds for
terrorists. We may see shortages of resources
such as oil, food, and water; creating
a more hostile world. Beheadings in Iraq
and terrorists targeting a school in Russia
suggest an escalating hierarchy of terror.
confronting these new threats, the question
becomes how do we respond as an organization?
Our ability to preempt another 9/11 or
Oklahoma City bombing will depend on our
ability to predict an attack. It requires
three critical capabilities: intelligence,
technology and partnerships.
intelligence. Intelligence is simply information.
For our purposes, intelligence means vital
information about those who would do us
harm. The FBI has always used intelligence
in pursuing its criminal cases. It is
how we fought Nazi spies during World
War II, Soviet espionage during the Cold
War, and La Cosa Nostra in the seventies
the years, though, walls--both real and
perceived--prevented the sharing of intelligence
and criminal information. Since 9/11,
the single most important change in our
ability to fight terrorism has been the
Patriot Act, which removed the legal walls
between intelligence operations and criminal
means that law enforcement and intelligence
agents are now able to legally coordinate
terrorism investigations. The FBI and
CIA now work together side-by-side. The
FBI can now analyze intelligence and integrate
that analysis into all investigative programs--counterterrorism,
counterintelligence, criminal, or cyber.
Because we can take a wider view, we often
see links between criminal and counterterrorism
example, one terrorism case initiated
in Minneapolis became a criminal case
in San Diego. The investigation focused
on a group of Pakistan-based individuals
who were involved in arms trafficking
as well as drug distribution. They had
also discussed an exchange of a large
quantity of hashish and heroin for four
stinger anti-aircraft missiles to be used
by Al Qaeda in Afghanistan. The operation
resulted in the arrest, indictment, and
subsequent deportation of all three individuals
from Hong Kong to San Diego to face drug
charges and charges of providing material
support to Al Qaeda.
was a case where intelligence, shared
among agencies, exposed the interplay
of criminal and foreign intelligence activity.
improve our intelligence capabilities,
we have established one comprehensive
program under the Directorate of Intelligence
with oversight and budget authority over
all FBI intelligence activities. The Directorate
is able to leverage the core strengths
of law enforcement--with its attention
to the pedigree of sources and fact-based
analysis--while ensuring that information
is shared by those who collect intelligence,
those who analyze intelligence, and those
who must act upon intelligence to protect
have also created intelligence groups
in every FBI field office nationwide.
Analysts, agents, linguists, and surveillance
specialists work as teams gathering, analyzing,
and disseminating intelligence information.
Field Intelligence Groups are at the center
of our intelligence operations. They have
a major role in ensuring that we gather
what we need to know and that we share
it with our counterparts in law enforcement
and with the intelligence community.
me add that we are currently reviewing
the recommendations of the WMD Commission.
As you know, the Commission recently completed
its report and offered a number of recommendations
for the FBI and the rest of the Intelligence
Community. The Commission's work makes
a significant contribution to understanding
ways in which we can improve our intelligence
capabilities. We are looking forward to
continuing to build and reform our national
security program in light of the Commission's
look forward to working with the new Director
of National Intelligence, John Negroponte,
to ensure that the intelligence we collect
meets established requirements and that
our intelligence agencies work together
second critical capability-technology--helps
us collect, analyze, and share intelligence.
Or in other words, know what we know.
Agents and intelligence analysts will
continue to need new tools and capabilities.
It does not take long for terrorists to
catch on to our technology and to adjust.
In the future, our technology must be
upgraded on a continual basis so that
we stay ahead of our enemies.
will need a fully operational modern information
technology infrastructure. One that enables
effective information sharing that will
close the communication gap with our law
enforcement partners and the intelligence
community. Our overriding goal is to provide
the right information, to the right people,
at the right time.
have dramatically upgraded our technology
since 9/11, particularly when it comes
to replacing computers, updating our networks,
and developing databases. We have had
disappointments along the way, but we
are continuing to adjust our strategy
to incorporate the most modern technology
into every aspect of our operations.
help ensure our technology is cutting-edge,
we consulted with a broad range of industry
leaders to help bring our capabilities
up to where they should be.
currently have a project to upgrade our
software on the drawing board. We anticipate
it will be done in four phases, each of
which will deliver new capabilities. We
will use this new program to transform
the FBI's application platform and conduct
an incremental replacement of all our
legacy applications to bring the Bureau
in line with our new Enterprise Architecture.
have also taken steps to ensure appropriate
management of our IT projects. Our Chief
Information Officer now has global command
and control of our IT, including operations
and funding. In addition, we have implemented
a process to ensure that all projects
are carried out according to industry
is how we are internally transforming
our infrastructure. Meanwhile, externally,
our operational technologies are growing
way we are using technology to build connections
is the National Law Enforcement Data Exchange
system, known as N-Dex. When complete,
this will be the first national information
sharing service. It will collect and process
structured crime data--similar to an index
card--from all major FBI databases. For
the first time, the FBI will be able to
provide "one stop shopping,"
where combined data can be correlated.
This will provide access to information
allowing us to detect and prevent terrorism
attacks, link cases, and form broader
a complement to N-Dex, Regional Data Exchanges
will enable the FBI to participate regionally
with federal, state, tribal, and local
law enforcement agencies around the country.
These systems will allow the sharing of
full text information on a regional basis.
It will provide the analytic piece needed
to search and correlate unstructured data
from regional systems.
addition to intelligence and technology,
the third critical element to improving
our capabilities is partnerships. Partnerships
at all levels--local, state, federal,
and international--help us share what
the state and local level, our Joint Terrorism
Task Forces are the eyes and ears of communities
around the country. Working side-by-side,
members from intelligence and law enforcement,
track down each and every counterterrorism
lead, no matter how insignificant it may
seem. In the last three years, we have
increased the JTTFs from 35 to 103.
addition to the JTTFs, our Regional Computer
Forensics Labs combine partnerships and
technology. These state-of-the-art regional
facilities are highly specialized laboratories
that provide forensic examinations of
digital evidence. Six labs are up and
running, and eight more are in the works.
In each one, law enforcement agencies
from all levels of government train, work,
and share information together. In particular,
they make use of new forensics capabilities
to address terrorism, cyber crime, identity
theft, as well as other crimes.
only are we cooperating better at the
state and local level, we are also working
more closely with our partners at the
national level. To ensure we all have
access to the same information, we have
created a number of "fusion centers."
At the National Counterterrorism Center--formerly
TTIC--federal agencies work side-by-side
analyzing terrorist threat information.
The Center receives foreign intelligence
information lawfully collected by its
members. This includes international terrorism
information collected by the law enforcement
has improved globally as well. FBI Agents
are working with our law enforcement partners
from Rome to Romania. We are gathering
intelligence in Iraq and Afghanistan.
These international partnerships are critical
if we hope to be successful in the future.
cases with an international nexus have
become the rule rather than the exception.
President Wilson could have been talking
about law enforcement today when he said,
"Friendship is the only cement that
will ever hold the world together."
FBI now has offices across the globe.
Our 51 Legal Attaché offices have
become increasingly important to our operations.
What began primarily as a liaison office
now assists our counterparts overseas
on joint investigations, intelligence-sharing,
and the development of new methods to
example of a terrorism investigation aided
by international cooperation is the investigation
into the Lackawanna terrorist cell outside
Buffalo, New York. From the police officers
who helped to identify and conduct surveillance
on the cell members. To the information
obtained from sources overseas. To the
diplomatic and intelligence personnel
who coordinated our efforts with foreign
governments. To the FBI agents and federal
prosecutors who conducted the investigation
leading to the arrests and indictment.
Each had a significant role.
this era of globalization, working side-by-side
is not just the best option, it is the
building our intelligence capabilities,
improving our technology, and working
together, we can and we will develop the
capabilities we need to succeed against
the threats of the future.
have discussed some of the changes we
have made, but I want to finish with two
strengths of the FBI that should remain
the same. One is our values. These values
include respect for the authority granted
to us and strict adherence to the United
States Constitution. They are also reflected
in our motto: Fidelity, Bravery, and Integrity.
other is the FBI's commitment to protecting
our civil rights. The men and women who
serve in the FBI are fully engaged in
the fight against terrorism and crime.
They are working day and night to protect
the American people, while upholding the
civil liberties we cherish. We have made
progress. We will continue to meet--and
to defeat--threats against the security
of this nation and the world.